Kids this age often have trouble knowing where to start. An adult can look at a room and say: I see books that need to go on the shelves, cars that need to go in the bin, clothes in the laundry basket, etc. Preschoolers look at the room and are overwhelmed. What has worked for us is that we clean it up together AND I give some guidance, mostly in helping him to visually "sort" the mess. "I'll pick up all the books, you find all the legos and put them in their bin." Then, when we're both done with those tasks, "You pick up the trains and tracks, I'll put the cars away." Now that we've been doing this for awhile, I'll often ask him "look around the room, what do you see that you can clean up next." He'll say "I see blocks." Great, pick up all the blocks. They just can't break down tasks into smaller parts the way adults can, and so they don't know how to begin. But you can teach him how to do that by modeling and suggesting.
It also sounds like it's become a power struggle for you both, so you might try to find some way to reset. Depending on your kid, you might be able to sit down at some point when you both have some time, no hurry, nowhere to go (I know, like that ever happens) - when you don't have the other kids pulling you in other directions, when you can just sit with him for a few minutes - and talk about it. You're both very frustrated, you can talk about (briefly) what you're frustrated about (I feel sad when I see your toys and clothes on the floor, because I don't want them to be broken or ruined.) and ask him why he gets frustrated when you ask him to put his clothes away, or whatever. And he might be able to tell you something useful about why he reacts the way he does! Just clear the air - briefly! - and without blame. Then say, let's try to find a new way to do this together, a way that will keep both of us from being frustrated. Let's go right now and look at your room, and see if we can figure this out.