You'd be amazed at what a toothless kid can gum to bits... And what they don't "chew" completely, they will simply swallow and pass throughlike we pass corn and tomato seeds and other indigestibles (as long as it's not big enough to block their airway and you're watching them like a hawk!). I would give my daughter peas that were out of their shells and soft, noodles, big fat carrot sticks (big enough that she wouldn't gag and I watched to make sure she didn't break off a piece), strips of toast, strawberries, pieces of grapes, cut up raisins, green beans (raw or cooked- keep an eye on them), chunks of pears (ripe ones disintegrate easily), celery sticks, rice, potatoes, strips of bell peppers (my DD would suck on it until the fleshy part was easy to swallow), itty bitty chunks of meat, shredded cheese, anything that's either soft or cut up small or durable enough not to break off pieces. Lots of cereals work too, like rice chex, cheerios, rice krispies, special K, honeycombs, gerber puffs, zwieback toast, arrowroot cookies, oatmeal, anything that gets soggy in milk.
Oh, tofu is a great one too... there's so much you can give them, you just have to think outside the box and be nutritiously creative.
Think of stuff you don't like and always got teased for not liking... start them on liking it early! As long as it's healthy, of course.