Once again, Diane B nailed it.
I became a SAHM mom about 1 month before the birth of our first child. He graduated high school last May, did a semester at college, decided he'd rather DO something now besides school, and leaves for boot camp in a few weeks. I rejoined the work force (part-time--4 days a week, 6hr days) last fall when he was going to college. We have another child who is a sophomore in high school now. Never in all of those 18 years did my husband tell me I didn't contribute enough. That's not to say I didn't go through periods where I didn't keep the house as well as we'd both have liked. But, even when I wasn't working, he asked me if we should get someone to come in a few times a month to do the deep cleaning stuff. (I declined.)
I don't know that work value is as cut and dried as you present it with your either-or choices of "intrinsic value" or "acquiring status." It can be both, and it can be other things as well. Obviously, teaching, there is not dollar value that can adequately be placed on what you do. But, does that mean that it doesn't help you financially? Of course not. Just because husband has a well paying career, likewise, doesn't mean that getting the bills paid is all it's about.
If you enjoy what you do, or even if you don't, you can reap the rewards of feeling as if you are contributing- To your family, your future, your neighbor, your community. And in different ways. Yes, you can even contribute to your own peace of mind and sense of worth.
The problem here isn't that your husband values your teaching career differently than you do. It's that he undervalues all you do outside of teaching, and thinks he isn't responsible for anything but making money (that last bit is a guess, but I'm betting as Diane B suggested that you are the one who manages the entirety of the household business at home... the kids, the pets, the payments, the doctors, the dentists, the groceries, the laundry, the dinner plans and clean-up, the Christmas decorating, holiday/birthday gift shopping, the taxes even...?).
As I mentioned, I just returned to working outside the home. It's only 20-25 hours a week (average). But I have always managed everything at home to relieve my husband of having to deal with the "home front" stuff while he was working outside the home providing for us. The bill paying, the grocery shopping, the clothing shopping, the shoe shopping, the doctors, the dentists, the vet, the orthodontist, the practices, the concerts, the rehearsals, the "team mom" stuff, the chaperoning/field trip stuff, the hosting of friends stuff, the meal planning (most of it), the tax prep, the car maintenance scheduling, the termite inspection, you get the picture. He mowed the grass. The end. So now, I still do all that, but I work outside the home another set of hours. I also just took on a volunteer role at our church that is eating a lot more time than I had anticipated, and husband has suggested I advise now that I won't be doing it again next year, so they can find someone else... b/c he knows it takes way more time than I have to spend on it without running ragged elsewhere--and that elsewhere includes HIM. He likes having me available to do things on his days off, and not stressed about this other thing I'm doing. My work, I mostly leave at work. It doesn't stress me at home. I leave work at work. But the Treasurer stuff is an ongoing, at home, after hours thing that interferes with our weekends on a regular basis.
But, my husband doesn't suggest (or outright TELL me) that I'm not contributing enough... he supports me and suggests I find ways to make things easier on myself. He gladly helps with meal prep, or says let's go out. He helps with laundry. He will help with chauffeur duty (when his work schedule allows).
I used to think and say that we are a partnership. But I'm not sure that's an accurate depiction really. He supports me. Emotionally, financially, spiritually. He wants things to be better for me (whatever better looks like for us). When I felt bored at home as the kids got older, and eventually they didn't need me except after school hours as a chauffeur, he said, Hey, why not volunteer somewhere? Not b/c he thought I wasn't contributing, but b/c he recognized that I felt wasteful in how my time was being spent, and useless for a good part of the day. I needed something useful to do. But I felt like a volunteer situation would cost us money (we live a good drive from anywhere, so lots of gas to commit to go to and from), and I was actively trying to save so we could afford a vehicle for our daughter soon. So, I found paid work, and he told me how amazing I was and how lucky they were to have me work there.
There is still a lot he takes for granted, that I do and have always done. Household paperwork especially. He knows he wants no part of it. But b/c he has been mostly sheltered from it, he has no REAL appreciation for how much/what goes on to balance it all. I let him take the lead in having a well installed last fall. It dragged on forever and he almost lost it dealing with the people. That was almost fun to watch. ;)
Sorry to write a book... but Diane has this right. Go away and don't pre-plan, prepare, pre-anything for him. Go when the groceries haven't been stocked, and the toilet paper on the roll is almost empty (bc no man knows where the extra rolls are!), and the paper towels are almost gone. Let him figure out how to clean the coffee pot (and make it). Just don't set yourself up to come home to a mess that YOU then have to deal with.
Good luck. Don't let him tell you that you aren't contributing enough. He just has no idea how much you DO contribute. He's happy and fed, right? Your kids are clean, rested, healthy, and in school on time, right? He has clean clothes to wear to work, right? Is he filling your gas tank in your car when it's empty? Why not? What's HE doing to contribute to the home (outside of making money)?