I was, and still am, basically in the same position. My daughter is now 14 mos. and only wants to eat stuff she can feed to herself (which makes it a bit harder). We're working on using a spoon but most of it ends up on her front or lap. We also work and I feed her earlier than we eat our dinner. Sometimes I have leftovers from our dinner the night before but not always. Here are a few things that I have tried:
On Sundays I try to steam (in my rice steamer) baby carrots, broccoli and chicken breasts. Then I have a few things to work with during the week. I also found a website that had some good ideas but again it takes a bit of preplanning. Check out www.wholesomebabyfood.com. I got a great idea on this site under the "finger foods" section. I take won ton wrappers (found in the cooler dept near organic produce at my grocery store) and fill them with different food combinations like broccoli/cheese, chicken/broccoli, mashed potato/cheese, etc. You fold over the wrapper and twist the end after filling it and bake at 350 degrees for 12-15 minutes. They can be made ahead and frozen (prior to baking) as well. My daughter can easily hold on to the twisted end and she absolutely loves them in any combination.
I try to give her really healthy, unprocessed foods as well which limits my options. I'm not always perfect but I try. She likes the Morningstar brand corn dogs (I cut them up into small bites), veggie chicken nuggets and veggies burgers. I also have made super small meatballs from turkey meat and baked them (these are also very easy to freeze and pull out as needed). Lastly, I sometimes make a bit of pasta on Sunday and make either homemade mac & cheese or add a bit of pasta sauce to it during the week. Last night I put a bit of butter and some freshly grated parmesan cheese on it and she gobbled it up. These are all pretty easy options in a hurry.
Hopefully some of these ideas will help. Good luck!